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william of orange

On 6 January 1579, several southern provinces, unhappy with William's radical following, signed the Treaty of Arras, in which they agreed to accept their Catholic governor, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma (who had succeeded Don Juan). During his stay in Paris, on a hunting trip to the Bois de Vincennes, King Henry II of France started to discuss with William a secret understanding between Philip II and himself aimed at the violent extermination of Protestantism in France, the Netherlands "and the entire Christian world".
On 1 April 1572 a group known as the Watergeuzen ("Sea Beggars") captured the city of Brielle, which had been left unattended by the Spanish garrison. After the death of either William or Mary, the other would continue to reign. Appointed stadtholder of H…, William III (1650–1702), king of England, Scotland (as William II), and Ireland (1689–1702), prince of Orange. WILLIAM OF ORANGE (15331584), Dutch statesman, leader of the Dutch Revolt, and founding father of the Dutch Republic. Upon his death in 1702, the king was succeeded in Britain by Anne and as titular Prince of Orange by his cousin, John William Friso. [114] Portland wrote to William in 1697 that "the kindness which your Majesty has for a young man, and the way in which you seem to authorise his liberties ... make the world say things I am ashamed to hear. In the novel Waterloo, the Prince of Orange was described as having an easy nature, but needing to demonstrate his command, even to the point of demanding Sharpe … He served in the army of the governor of Luxembourg, Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, for two years, hoping to get close to William when the armies met.
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Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. [109] Despite his conversion to Anglicanism, William's popularity in England plummeted during his reign as a sole monarch. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The heritage included not only large possessions in the Netherlands, but also the principality of Orange in southern France. In the 1560s, under the regime of Charles V's successor, Philip II of Spain (ruled 1556–1598), everything changed dramatically. In early 1565, a large group of lesser noblemen, including William's younger brother Louis, formed the Confederacy of Noblemen.

"[142], As Prince of Orange, William's coat of arms was: Quarterly, I Azure billetty a lion rampant Or (for Nassau); II Or a lion rampant guardant Gules crowned Azure (Katzenelnbogen); III Gules a fess Argent (Vianden), IV Gules two lions passant guardant Or, armed and langued azure (Dietz); between the I and II quarters an inescutcheon, Or a fess Sable (Moers); at the fess point an inescutcheon, quarterly I and IV Gules, a bend Or (Châlons); II and III Or a bugle horn Azure, stringed Gules (Orange) with an inescutcheon, Nine pieces Or and Azure (Geneva); between the III and IV quarters, an inescutcheon, Gules a fess counter embattled Argent (Buren).[143]. The treaty, however, was concluded despite William’s wrathful opposition. [33] On 19 January 1672, the States of Holland made a counterproposal: to appoint William for just a single campaign. Rosalind K. Marshall, 'Mackenzie, Anna, countess of Balcarres and countess of Argyll (c.1621–1707)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006, Troost, 27.

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